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Romoting the charcoal recycling of branches and vines in Taiwan
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Farmers in Taiwan prune about 2 million metric tons of branches and vines of fruit trees each year. They were used as fuel in the past. Later, because of the widespread use of gas, farmers didn't know how to deal with them, and they burned indiscriminately, causing environmental damage. In order to recycle these wastes, the "oxygen-limited carbonization" technology developed by me can be used to make "biochar", which can be returned to the farmland to improve the acidified soil and provide potash fertilizer. After being retorted, cooled and collected, the smoke generated during the carbonization process can be made into "wood vinegar ", which has the effect of sterilizing, deodorizing, and reducing pesticide replacement by half. It can also be made into nutrient solution and non-toxic natural pesticides. This set of equipment is simple, low cost, easy to operate, and worthy of promotion.
I plan to expand my current vine carbonization test site into a community carbonization treatment site, and serve as a Taiwan carbonization education training center to promoting"circular agriculture" to farmers. In this way, the pruned branches and vines can be processed, and the rural living environment can be improved. At the same time, the use of chemical pesticides can be reduced, and friendly farming and organic cultivation can be promoted, so that the earth's resources can continue to flourish.
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A、How to be born
Sixty years ago, Kyoho grapes were introduced from Japan for trial planting in Dacun Township, Changhua County. With the hard work of the grandfathers of the old farmers, and the advantages of suitable climate and soil, the planting area was rapidly expanded. Later, Lin Jiaxing, an agricultural improvement farm in Taichung District, was instructing the techniques of pruning branches, so that the original harvest of Kyoho grapes from one year to two harvests per year has greatly increased the income of grape farmers. Farmers also use the pruned vine branches as fuel for the kitchen stove, burn the remaining ashes, and return the mixed compost to the vineyard or as the root fertilizer for raising rice seedlings. It can be said to be a lifestyle of recycling and recycling of rural resources. At that time, the rural areas were almost zero agricultural waste.
After the 1960s, farmers began to use a large amount of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. The convenience of these two industrial products brought rich rural products and greatly improved the lives of farmers. Thirty years ago, I was working in an English-language magazine in Taiwan, and seeing the 17th and 18th issues of Hansheng Magazine reported on food safety issues such as food additives and pesticide residues, it caused great ripples in my heart as a farmer. Shocked. After get off work, I often contact grape growers to learn about the use of chemical pesticides. I found that many grape growers have little knowledge of pesticide use, and most of them just follow the introduction of pesticides. After further field investigation, it was found that in order to increase the control effect, farmers did not use the dilution ratio, and sometimes added more pesticides, which caused the pesticide residue to exceed the standard. Even a small number of fruit farmers used mercury and banned drugs. During the investigation, it was more unexpectedly discovered that many fruit farmers suffer from stomach and liver diseases. In 1994, the grapes were tested by the health unit to use banned drugs (Da Fu Dan), which caused consumers to panic about domestic grapes and made the grapes unsalable for several years.
Later, gas became popular, and farmers gradually replaced traditional stoves with gas stoves. The pruned vines did not know how to reuse them, so they were dumped by fruit farmers on fields, fallow fields, river banks, roadsides, cemeteries and other places. After it dries, it is set on fire, and a lot of plastic garbage is mixed in it. Fires caused by weeds and vine branches occur almost every year, causing environmental and air pollution. As a farmer’s child, the more I understand the truth, the more unwilling to work in another place. In 1986, I resolutely quit my job and returned to my hometown to manage a three-part vineyard, and I devoted myself to the research of organic grape cultivation through the process of field practice. To observe the changes in grape growth and think about cultivation techniques that do not use chemical fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides, etc. At that time, they used to turn on the lights at night to observe the situation of pests. In addition, the garden was full of weeds. Crazy, many grape growers think that my management method without pesticides is not feasible, and they all call me a fool. At that time, because of the sudden decline in income, he purchased materials and equipment, so he borrowed money to survive. For a time, he wanted to give up, but he did not give up and was unwilling to waste three years of research. Fortunately, I had a good opportunity to study natural farming methods at Dairen Farm in Japan. I learned that Japan has been implementing natural farming methods for more than 30 years. This opportunity made me more determined to do this meaningful thing for my hometown.
During this period, I recalled that my grandfather taught me to sift the ashes to raise seedlings as root fertilizer. The planter Lin Ponkan's well-known grandfather used twigs and bamboo to burn charcoal as fertilizer, so that the ponkan he planted was the sweetest. Grandma used charcoal ash and compost to grow delicious papaya, mother used charcoal ash as a dishwashing detergent, sand and charcoal to filter water, the teachings of these elders, plus squatting in front of a traditional stove to help burn the materials when they were young My experience allowed me to explore the technology of using grapevine branches to carbonize. Later, I developed a technology using "oxygen-limited braising and carbonization". During the process, the smoke is cooled and the acetic acid is collected, and it is formulated into a liquid fertilizer that promotes flowering and fruit and is non-toxic. Natural pesticides finally constructed an organic grape planting management model. It was also published in the "Sustainable Agriculture Seminar" of the Taichung District Agricultural Improvement Farm in 1993, and received widespread acclaim. The old county magistrate Zhou Qingyu visited the vineyard, and was also recommended by the old magistrate of Huangshicheng. At that time, President Lee Teng-hui often directly ordered grapes as gifts. Many officials and scholars at home and abroad often visit the vineyards for guidance.
At present, farmers rarely use stoves. The treasures that were used as fuel in the early days are rushed for by everyone, but now they have become waste and no one wants them. In addition to vine branches, frequently pruned fruit trees such as guava, mango, longan, lychee, lotus mist, citrus, dates, custard apples, etc., as well as factory waste wood materials, pallets, etc., these also caused the environment to be messy and unclean.
Take Dacun Township as an example. The waste of vine branches is about 250 metric tons per year. The mayor wants to solve the problem and purchases crushing equipment for composting treatment. The township office is changed to be shattered and sent as household garbage because it has not been corrupted for a long time. Going to the Xizhou incinerator was forbidden. Because the government banned farmers from burning vine branches, the number of vine branches recovered soared last year. The first phase was broken, and the second phase had to be collected and stacked next to the cemetery. On January 26, 2009, a major fire broke out in the vine storage yard. "Circular Agriculture"-"Organic Cultivation" has a key technology that uses the principle of carbonization and reuse of waste. At present, there are many kinds of raw materials that can be used as carbonization in Dacun Township, especially the twice-a-year pruning of vine branches is carbonized raw materials. Things that benefit the public.
Grapevine braising and carbonization treatment technology is the result of my research 30 years ago. I hope to establish a "circular agriculture" framework for my hometown. Through countless operations and field planting experiences over the years, it has proved to be simple and feasible. . The time and space background at that time was not easy to implement, because the government and farmers were not awakened and 30 years of time were wasted in vain. There are air pollution problems, garbage problems, environmental sanitation problems, pesticide residues food safety problems, agricultural land pollution problems, plus the current public's attention to environmental protection, production history, food sources and other factors, if you can take this participation to promote organic cultivation, The concepts and practices of environmentally friendly agriculture, healthy agriculture, and sustainable agriculture are combined into "circular agriculture"
The vines are characterized by high crude cellulose, not perishable, and not suitable for composting treatment. With braising and carbonization treatment, using coarse bran to fill the gaps, you can continue braising without interruption, as long as 8 to 48 hours, the biochar produced can be used as an amendment to acidify the soil, etc.; the generated smoke can be collected by dry distillation and cooling. It is then made into wood vinegar liquid, which has the effects of anti-inflammatory, sterilizing, deodorizing, plant growth nutrient solution, and halving the replacement of pesticides.
The braising and carbonization technology is simple, easy to learn, easy to operate, practical, low in equipment cost, and worthy of promotion.
The output value of agricultural waste is low, and the vines are fluffy and the transportation cost is high, which is not suitable for long-distance transportation. It is easier and feasible to implement regional integration in the main grape producing areas.
C、 The way and application of carbonization
Grapevine carbonization is the application of simple scientific principles, which integrates aerodynamics, hot air rise, oxygen-limited braising, dry distillation cooling, water cooling, standing precipitation, and air swirling upwards in series to establish the "oxygen-limited carbonization" technology. Collect acetic acid as the main by-product biochar. After collecting the acetic acid, it is processed into refined wood vinegar, which can be used as an additive for pesticide halving or as a nutrient that promotes flowering and fruit; soaking pepper, hand fragrance, bitter tea meal, small flower vinegar, etc. become non-toxic natural pesticides I have been experimenting with litchi stink bugs for three years and proved to have good results. Other uses such as: production of anti-mosquito liquid, deodorant liquid, handmade soap, deodorant liquid for garbage trucks and other products. The biochar made from by-products has a pH of about 10, so it is suitable as an acid soil amendment to improve the physical properties, air permeability, drainage, and water retention of the soil. It can also provide an environment for microorganisms to inhabit and multiply, which is friendly to promotion. Farmers farming and organic cultivation are key technologies.
In the early days, 50 gallons of gasoline barrels were used as the carbonization experiment furnace to process their own grape vines, and countless experiments were done. Now the five-foot cube braising room is expanded to conduct different types of carbonization experiments on the vines and other branches, Fruit branches, pallets, driftwood, and miscellaneous wood are used for carbonization experiments, and relevant data and experience accumulation are established for promotion and teaching.
◎a、The difference between carbonization temperature and acetic acid output
1. High temperature above 800 ℃: suitable for making charcoal, with little acetic acid
2. Medium temperature 400~800 ℃: suitable for making charcoal, with little acetic acid
3. Low temperature 200~600 ℃: suitable for making charcoal, with a lot of acetic acid
◎b、The function and characteristics of charcoal
1. Charcoal can be used as an amendment for acidic soil
2. The pine has a porous nature, which makes the soil have good air permeability and increases the oxygen supply to the roots.
3. Make the clay soft, reduce moisture damage, and promote drainage
4. The main component is carbon and silicon, which is similar to the soil, which promotes the healthy growth of crops
5. Contains soluble silicon, combined with calcium, can enhance plant disease resistance
6. Good base exchange can help plants absorb nutrients and make the leaf stems thicker and healthy
7. The main fertilizer is potassium, which can promote the effectiveness of P (phosphorus), Ca (calcium) and Mg (magnesium)
8. It has strong adsorption and has the function of absorbing toxins, inactivating heavy metals and not being absorbed by the roots.
9. When combined with organic fertilizer, it can reduce continuous cropping obstacles and reduce fertilizer loss
10. Carbon compounds can enhance heat absorption, increase ground temperature, promote crop growth, and reduce cold damage
11. Can be used as feed additives to make poultry and livestock healthier
12. It can improve the peculiar smell of the breeding environment
◎c、the function and characteristics of wood vinegar
1. It can be used as a substitute for pesticide halving
2. It can be used as a nutrient solution to promote the healthy growth of crops
3. Adjustable trace elements, as a nutrient solution that promotes high flowering and fruiting rate
4. It can be soaked in chili powder, hand-scented, and bitter tea dregs are non-toxic natural pesticides
5. It is also a non-toxic natural pesticide mixed with Xiaohua Manzelan
6. The effect of eliminating odor is super fast
◎d、the characteristics of oxygen-limited braising and carbonization
1. Simple series connection combined with scientific principles, without high-tech equipment
2. The whole process of carbonization uses less electricity, which is zero carbon emissions
3. Use track to push in and out of the carbonization tank, you don’t need a stacker
4. The carbonization process does not need to be watched all the time, and the safety is good
5. The operation process is simple and easy to learn
6. The carbonization furnace can connect several groups in series horizontally
7. Oxygen-limited braising and carbonization can produce acetic acid and charcoal
8. You can work during the day and night, and the amount of acetic acid produced at night is more than that during the day.
9. It can be designed as a mobile carbonization furnace to work directly in the vineyard
10. The equipment (large, medium and small three types) is low in price (20,000 to 300,000) and can be popularized
At present, the "oxygen-limited braising and carbonization" technology is very mature, and experiments with different fruit tree branches can continue in the future. The operation mode of the braising furnace can be designed into a base type, a mobile type and a simple type. The base type can be equipped with multiple sets of equipment instead of a large one. This is the particularity of carbonization. The mobile equipment is slightly smaller and can be directly moved to the vineyard for operations to process the vine waste on site. The biggest feature is the use of "oxygen-limited braising and carbonization" treatment, which can reduce the use of electricity throughout the process.
In the past five years, the visiting units include Lugang Society University, Yuanlin Society University, Nantou Society University, Xiushui Senior Center, Tongxiao Organic Cultivation Class, and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs led 12 agricultural technology exchange groups from diplomatic countries to study, and the agricultural laboratory Dr. Chen Qiling co-organized a community simple carbonization furnace application seminar. In addition, environmentalists from Hong Kong and Mr. Hu from the Philippines came to visit.
1. Let the people across the country know that vines or branches are raw materials that can be used.
2. Significantly reduce the organic waste entering the incineration plant.
3. Improve the messiness of agricultural communities and improve the quality of life of residents.
4. Farmers can produce healthy and nutritious fruits and vegetables, so that Chinese people can eat safely and healthily.
5. Reduce farmers' use of chemical fertilizers and chemical pesticides.
6. Reduce the cost of organic cultivation and make the price of organic fruits and vegetables more commonplace.
7. Avoid pollution of farmland.
8. Prevent people from burning vines in the open to cause air pollution and even fire.
I have promoted "Circular Agriculture" and "Organic Cultivation" for 30 years. I have done a lot of experiments to prove that it is feasible to treat grape vines with "limited oxygen braising and charring". The most important thing for the vines in the township is to openly pass on the experience of carbonization and organic cultivation to young farmers, so that more people can produce healthy and non-toxic organic fruits and vegetables, and take into account the ecological environment, so that more consumers can buy and eat with peace of mind. Rest assured, it can be said that production, life, and ecology are combined with each other to allow the earth to develop continuously.
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